Amman

View of Amman, including the Roman Theatre, from the Citadel

A bustling, vibrant capital city that’s home to more than one million people, Amman is a modern metropolis with ancient roots, having been inhabited in some form or another for millennia. Its former incarnations include Ammon, the capital of the Ammonite people during Biblical times, and the Greek and Roman city of Philadelphia. And it’s where I spent my final day in Jordan.

The Jordan Museum in Amman

My first destination was the Jordan Museum (above), a small museum dedicated to the country’s history and culture.

Its exhibits cover much of the region’s early history, from its early settlement by prehistoric hominids to the introduction of farming, as well as the innovations of the Bronze and Iron Ages, and the influence of the Nabateans, the Greeks, the Romans and the Byzantines. It also explores many aspects of Bedouin culture, focusing on topics as varied as cooking practices, the tribal court and weaving.

One of my favourite exhibits looked at the development of writing and featured an incredible display that showed how the world’s alphabets evolved. It was superb, and as part of the exhibit, you could type your name into a computer to find out what it would be in Aramaic, Nabatean, Greek and Arabic, then print off a certificate to take home with you.

I also was intrigued by the Ain Ghazal statues, a series of unusual, 8,500-year-old plaster figurines that are completely out of proportion – one had a tiny head with a fat body and legs, another consisted of a large square with two small heads.

But the undoubted highlight is the fragments of the Dead Sea Scrolls that are on display alongside a few copper-plated scrolls.

The scrolls, which contain some of the oldest known Biblical texts, were discovered in caves in what was then Jordan during the 1940s and 1950s. Most of the scrolls now belong to Israel with only a few remaining in Jordanian hands, so it was incredible to have the chance to see these world-famous texts up close, even if they only amounted to a few fragments.

I really enjoyed the Jordan Museum. It was well-curated, boasted interesting artefacts and the wealth of information for visitors helped provide context to some of the many sites I’d been to in the country. We only spent an hour there, but I could easily have spent longer, reading all the information plaques in detail and studying the many objects on display.

The Roman Theatre in the centre of Amman

After the museum, we made our way to the Roman Theatre (above), a two thousand-year-old sandstone amphitheatre in the heart of the city. With its three tiers and seating for around 6,000 people, the amphitheatre is bigger than the two amphitheatres we visited in the nearby Roman city of Jerash.

We spent a little while walking around the theatre, climbing its steps and sitting in its seats, before taking a look at another, much smaller amphitheatre (below) near its entrance. The amphitheatres were very well preserved and it was amazing to see they were still in such good condition after so many years.

The little amphitheatre next to the Roman Theatre in Amman

The area surrounding the amphitheatre is home to a couple of small, basic museums.

To the left of the Roman Theatre is the Jordan Museum of Popular Traditions, which features clothing and jewellery from Jordan, Palestine and Syria. It also exhibits folklore decorations and daggers, as well as stones worn or carried by the Bedouin for preventative medicine or curing purposes. Despite being very small, it’s a great little place and there are a number of interesting artefacts on display.

The Folklore Museum, meanwhile, lies to the right of the Roman Theatre and uses models to showcase traditional Jordanian ways of life, such as what women did in the home and how the Jordanians made bread. It’s not as interesting as the Museum of Popular Traditions, but it’s worth a quick peek inside.

From the Roman Theatre, we made our way to the ruined citadel, which lies atop the Jebel el-Qalaa mountain opposite. The citadel is an enormous ruined archaeological site in the centre of Amman and provides spectacular views of the city (below).

View of Amman from the citadel

In front of us were the tightly-packed apartment complexes where many of the Palestinians who’ve sought refuge in Jordan live, while in the distance I could make out the tall skyscrapers of the modern city, as well as the orange roofs of the royal palace, nestled among lush green gardens.

The Roman Temple of Hercules in the citadel in Amman

The citadel ruins are extensive and take a good hour to walk around. Representing a swathe of Amman’s ancient past, the remains date back to various eras including the Roman period, the Umayyad Caliphate and the Byzantine empire. Some of the most impressive ruins include the tall and imposing Roman Temple of Hercules (above), along with the small blue-domed mosque that lies within the ruins of the old Umayyad Palace (below).

The blue-domed Umayyad mosque in the Citadel in Amman

The citadel complex is also home to the Jordan Archaeological Museum (below). The museum houses Jordanian artefacts that date from the Bronze, Roman, Hellenistic, Chalcolithic, Iron, Nabatean and Umayyad periods.

The Jordan Archaelogical Museum in the citadel in Amman

Fossils, coins, bits of pottery, jewellery and glassware are among the artefacts on display, along with horse, buffalo and rhino teeth, and three anthropoid coffins. The museum was small and fairly basic, but it offered a fascinating glimpse into the country’s history (not to mention, it provided a welcome break from the scorching sun outside).

I enjoyed my informative, whistle stop tour of the Jordanian capital and I came away with a much deeper understanding of the country’s – and its capital’s – long history. It was a great way to end a delightful week in a part of the world I hadn’t been to before.

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Aqaba

The port of Aqaba as seen from the Red Sea

The port of Aqaba lies on the southern tip of Jordan and is the country’s main gateway to the sea as it’s the only large town on Jordan’s small strip of coast. As such, it’s a popular destination for Jordanians hoping for some sea with their sun and sand.

Aqaba was much more touristy than the other parts of Jordan I’d visited, and with palm trees lining the roads, the rich blue expanse of sea, packed beaches and countless families milling about, it had a holiday vibe to it.

After checking in to our hotel, we made our way to the port area, where we hopped on a boat for a tour of the Red Sea. There were a number of gigantic shipping vessels, filled to the brim with containers, around the port and lots of industrial equipment lining the shore. Across the water, we could clearly see the Israeli town of Eilat, only a few kilometres away.

Our glass-bottomed boat was a simple two-deck affair, and once on board, I made my way down to the bottom deck, so I could look through the clear bottom. We set sail across the Red Sea – ironically the bluest sea I’ve ever laid eyes upon – and there was little to see aside from the odd enormous shipping vessel, the occasional holiday resort on the Jordanian shore, and the barren, sandy mountains of Jordan and Israel.

One of a number of enormous cargo ships, piled high with containers, sailing in the Red Sea

After around half an hour, the boat sailed closer to the shore, near a few resorts on the Jordanian coast, and slowed down so we could see the coral reef below. It was a beautiful sight and I got quite excited when we saw a few fish swimming among the coral.

The boat continued on its merry way through the choppy, vivid blue sea, passing over a sunken battleship, now studded with coral and what seemed to be a sea creature’s paradise. We soon came to a stop at a place called Black Rock, where we were offered the chance to go snorkelling.

I quickly changed into my swimsuit, put on my snorkelling gear, jumped off the back of the boat and swam out to our guides, who almost immediately pointed out a large turtle swimming beneath us, close to the sea floor. It was an incredible sight – seeing a sea turtle was top of my wish list and I was chuffed to bits we’d seen one straight away – and I spent ages watching the magnificent creature as it slowly glided through the water.

I got so caught up watching the turtle, I hadn’t realised the rest of the group had moved on, so I swam towards them to make sure I didn’t lose them, struggling at times to clear my breathing apparatus as the sea was quite rough.

When I reached the group, I took another look under the water and realised I was now swimming close to the coral reef with its spectacular cloud- and sponge-like shapes. There were lots of fish swimming in and around the coral, including a stingray, as well as a few small jellyfish, which I made sure to keep well clear of. I also made sure to keep a good distance from the reef to avoid touching and damaging the delicate coral.

A ship sailing through the choppy waters of the Red Sea, just outside the port of Aqaba

After a while, one of our guides signalled it was time to go back to the boat. I was having such an amazing time, my heart sank – I didn’t want to leave and could happily have stayed there all day. Back on board, I headed up to the top deck, where lunch was being served. Once everyone had finished eating, the boat picked up speed and we headed back to Aqaba.

That evening, we had dinner in a restaurant down by the harbour, and afterwards went for a stroll along the beach, around the area where an enormous flag of the Arab Revolution stands tall. The area was packed with Jordanians down for the weekend, chatting and dancing along the seafront.

I enjoyed my brief stay in Aqaba. There didn’t seem to be a huge amount to the town – it’s very much a holiday resort/industrial port – but I loved our tour of the Red Sea, especially snorkelling near the coral reef. The reef was breathtaking and I loved every minute snorkelling around it, in awe of its incredible marine life. It was one of my favourite experiences in Jordan, and was a nice way to spend my penultimate day in the country, before heading back up north to the capital Amman.

Wadi Rum

The sun sets over the desert at Wadi Rum

In the run up to my trip to Jordan, I began reading TE Lawrence’s The Seven Pillars of Wisdom, in which the former British army officer recounts his time in the region supporting the Arab Revolt during the First World War.

In his memoir, Lawrence also raves about the beauty of Wadi Rum, a vast desert in southern Jordan that boasts astonishing rock formations and the place I planned to spend a night in a Bedouin camp.

Unfortunately, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom turned out to be a crushing bore and I only got halfway through before my trip (I eventually finished it a few months later in between other books), which meant I learned very little about Lawrence’s thoughts on Wadi Rum. I, however, had ample opportunity to form my own opinions.

Roadside camels on the way to Wadi Rum

We travelled to Wadi Rum from Petra by bus, and as we approached the valley, the scenery began to change. Camels roamed freely by the roadside and the terrain became increasingly desert-like, with enormous rock formations jutting up from the sandy floor.

View from Wadi Rum Railway Station

Our first port of call was Wadi Rum Station, where an Ottoman train was ambushed on the tracks of the Hejaz Railway in 1916 by members of the Arab Revolt. The perfectly-preserved Al Hijaz Steam Train (below) is rather an odd sight, standing all on its lonesome in the middle of the desert, surrounded as far as the eye can see by sand and rocks.

We spent some 20 minutes looking around this curious relic, taking the opportunity to pop inside the wood-panelled carriage that was open to visitors, before continuing to the Wadi Rum Visitor Centre.

There, we headed up to the viewing platform to take a look at some of the desert’s most famous rock formations, including the iconic and impressive Jebel Makhrad, otherwise known as the Seven Pillars of Wisdom after Lawrence’s book (below).

The Seven Pillars of Wisdom from the Wadi Rum Visitor Centre

After soaking up the views, we made our way to our home for the night – a Bedouin campsite in the desert, consisting of a series of tents that included a large seating area, a dining room and 14 bedrooms. As we arrived at the camp (below), we were offered some tea by our Bedouin hosts, and then spent a couple of hours relaxing, away from the searingly hot sun.

Our Bedouin camp in Wadi Rum

In the early evening, we hopped in a jeep for a tour of Wadi Rum. As we drove around, I was taken aback by the vivid hue of the orangey-red desert sand and the magnificent rose-red rock formations. It’s a beautiful place and I was surprised by how many (albeit pretty dry) shrubs there were growing amid the barren landscape.

Carving of Lawrence of Arabia on a rock in Wadi Rum

At Jebel Umm Ulaydiyya, we stopped by a small Bedouin camp, opposite a huge sand dune. We got out of the jeep and slowly climbed the arduously steep dune (a real thigh burner), and when we eventually reached the top, sat down to enjoy the splendid view and relax. Afterwards, we made our way to the Bedouin camp for tea and stopped to take a look at the images of Lawrence of Arabia (above) and King Faisal carved into a nearby rock.

Faint outline of ancient Nabatean carvings on a rock face in Wadi Rum

We hopped back in the jeep to continue our desert adventure, stopping at a small raised viewing platform that boasted fabulous views of the valley below. From there, we carried on, stopping again by another large rock to take a look at a series of inscriptions carved into the stone a few thousand years ago. I was particularly taken by the wonderful camels depicted on the rock face (you can just make them out in the photo above) and was amazed they’d survived for so long.

Driving around Wadi Rum just before sunset

We continued our tour through the desert, enjoying the delightful scenery around us and stopping for a final time to climb a large rock, from which we watched the sun go down. The sunset was sensational (below), and once the sun had disappeared, we clambered down from the rock and sat on the desert floor, where we had tea with our Bedouin guides.

Three camels set off into the desert in Wadi Rum at sunset

It was lovely sitting with the Bedouin, sipping our tea and chatting. The desert was so still and peaceful, it felt as though we were the only souls for miles. I could have happily stayed there for hours, but as it was almost dinner time, it was time to head back to camp.

Our tour through the desert had lasted two-and-a-half hours, but I enjoyed it so much, it had whizzed by and I was surprised to discover how long we’d been out.

Unearthing our dinner in the Bedouin camp in Wadi Rum

Back at the camp, we watched as our Bedouin hosts uncovered our dinner, which was buried in a pot under the sand, and carried it into the dining room, ready for serving. Our hosts piled my plate high with food – a mix of spiced chicken and goat, rice, potato and carrots, served with flat bread, yoghurt, baba ganoush, hummus, and a tomato and cucumber salad. It was delicious and filling.

At bedtime, a few of us brought our mattresses out into the campfire area, where we slept under the stars. I’d expected the desert to be silent at night, but it was quite noisy – I could hear dogs barking in the middle of the night, as well as the call to prayer in the early hours of the morning. Nevertheless, I awoke – super relaxed – at 5.30am.

The desert and rock formations of Wadi Rum in Jordan

Spending a day and night in Wadi Rum was an incredible experience, and I enjoyed exploring the vast barren valley, learning how the Bedouin have traditionally lived in such a harsh environment, and marvelling at the area’s natural beauty. I can see why Lawrence of Arabia – among countless others – was so taken with it, it’s a spectacular place and well worthy of the gushing, lyrical praise it’s inspired over the years.

Little Petra

One of the spectacular dwellings in Little Petra

A short distance to the north of Petra is Siq al-Barid, a small archaeological site commonly referred to as Little Petra, because it’s essentially a miniature version of the world-famous ancient Nabatean capital.

It’s thought that Little Petra is where many Nabateans lived as it’s mostly home to a series of dwellings with very few tombs and temples, unlike Petra, which is a largely ceremonial and commercial tomb-and-temple fest.

One of the many dwellings in Little Petra

Little Petra is quite small, but it’s dotted with a surprising number of houses, staircases and water cisterns, all carved into the rose-red rock, and I was stunned by how much there was to see. The buildings were much simpler than those at Petra, but were nevertheless, mindbogglingly amazing.

Looking up at some of the dwellings in Little Petra

We ventured inside a few of the houses – one had two rooms with a little alcove and a small ledge you could sleep on, along with large windows. Another had a black ceiling cause by the smoke from the oil that was used to heat the room.

The ceiling inside the Painted House in Little Petra

One of the most impressive dwellings we looked inside was one known as the Painted House because it boasts a plaster ceiling and walls, which are decorated with intricate paintings of flowers, vines, gods and goddesses (above). It’s incredible to think it’s survived for some two thousand years!

The precarious trail leading to the viewing platform at Little Petra

Little Petra sits within a gorge and there’s a very narrow, precarious flight of steps at the end of it where the ravine narrows considerably (above). We decided to clamber up the steps to see where it took us, which wasn’t easy as it was less a traditional staircase and more a perilous set of rocks.

The super cute ginger kitten at Little Petra

The slightly hair-raising climb was worth it though as it led onto a plateau where a few Bedouin lived. We didn’t meet any Bedouin as walked around, but we did meet a tiny and very friendly ginger kitten (above).

The view from the viewing platform at Little Petra

We walked past the Bedouin tent and came to the end of the rock, which looked out over the valley beyond (above). The view was, unsurprisingly for this part of the world, incredible, and we spent a good 10 minutes admiring the scene before us, before clambering back down to the archaeological site.

Looking down on Siq al Barid, otherwise known as Little Petra

I loved our trip to Little Petra and was glad we’d added it to our itinerary as I’m sure many people skip it when they visit Petra. It’s a fascinating place, and I was amazed by how many dwellings there were carved into the rocks, and how we were allowed to wander in and out of them with very few restrictions. It’s quite a small place, so it doesn’t take long to look around, but it was great fun and complemented what we’d seen at Petra.

Petra – the Monastery

The Monastery and the nearby archaeological dig at Petra

On our second day in Petra, we set off at 7am to hike to the Monastery, an enormous monument cut into the rose-red rock, high on top of one of Petra’s many mountains.

Having learned our lesson about hiking in the searing midday sun the day before and with temperatures set to be even hotter (33°C), we were keen to leave as early as possible to complete our hike before noon.

The rose-red rocks of the Siq in Petra

It was quiet and peaceful as we strolled along the Siq (above), the narrow canyon that leads to the ancient capital, and in the stillness, I found myself noticing things I had missed the day before. The rocks appeared to be a slightly different colour to how I’d remembered them and I got the impression that Petra looks different on any given day, depending on the time of day and the weather.

As it was so early in the morning, there was no one around, in stark contrast to the day before when it was filled with people not long after 8.30am. It was a lovely moment when we reached the Treasury as there were so few people, we almost had it to ourselves. Aside from the odd traveller or two, the only other people around were the Bedouin guides and a film crew who were walking around inside the monument.

The rose-red amphitheatre cut into the rock at Petra

After taking some photos, we made our way past the tombs of the Outer Siq to the City of Petra, where we stopped to admire the marvellous amphitheatre (above), a glorious structure cut into the rose-red rock.

The day before I’d felt so ill as we walked through the City of Petra I wasn’t in a fit state to appreciate the incredible sights I passed, and so I was grateful we had a second day in the city and an opportunity to see them afresh.

The ruins in the City of Petra

We continued through the city (above) and after we passed the restaurants, we turned right to follow the trail up the mountain. The trek to the Monastery isn’t easy, with more than 800 steps to the monument. It was 9am by the time we reached the start of the path, the sun was already strong, and there was little shade as we began to climb.

The surrounding rocks on the hike to the Monastery in Petra

The trail was long with lots of twists and turns, and there were Bedouin stalls dotted along the route (I bought a lovely head scarf from one of them). It was a hard climb in the hot sun and every so often, as we came across a shady spot, we’d stop for a breather and some water.

When we finally reached the top, the first thing we saw was a very welcome café on the other side of a sandy plateau. We descended the steps towards the plateau, ready to make a beeline for the café, but before we did so, we stopped and turned around. To our right, much to our surprise, was the Monastery (below).

The Monastery at Petra

The Monastery is an enormous structure, similar to the more famous Treasury, but plainer and less ornate. It’s thought to date back to around the 1st century BC and is dedicated to the Nabatean king, Obodas I, who was worshipped as a god following his defeat of the Greeks and the Hasmoneans.

I can’t quite put into words what a fantastic moment it was stumbling upon the Monastery when we were hot, bothered and least expected it. There’d been no indication from the trail that we were about to reach it, nor did I expect it to look quite as huge and spectacular as it did.

I enjoyed the moment so much more than seeing the Treasury for the first time as I knew what to expect when I saw the Treasury, but this was such an unexpected surprise, it blew me away and is one of my all-time favourite travel experiences.

The plateau was deserted when we reached it, and aside from one young woman and her Bedouin guide, we had the place to ourselves, which somehow made the moment feel more special. After spending a bit of time staring in awe at the Monastery and pinching ourselves, we made our way to the café opposite, which was housed in a small cave.

We sat in the cool café, sipping lemon and mint juice, unable to take our eyes off the Monastery. The chilled, relaxing café was the perfect place to unwind after our long and sweaty hike.

View over the Monastery from the high place overlooking it

After a good rest, we headed to the high point behind the café, passing an archaeological dig along the way, so we could see the Monastery from above. We clambered up the rocks to the high point where we enjoyed breathtaking views of the ancient temple and the surrounding valleys (above and below).

Views of the surrounding valleys from the high place in Petra

We scooted down the rocks, and decided to follow a sign that promised the “best view in Jordan” on a rock a little further along the path. At the top of the viewpoint, we were greeted by an elderly Bedouin man and his nephew sitting in a small seating area on top of the rock.

View over the Wadi al-Araba from the Bedouin tent on the viewing platform near the Monastery in Petra

The view from the rock was superb as it looked out over the Wadi al-Araba (above), where the Bedouin told us they filmed The English Patient. The mountains in front of us were a dark green/purple colour, while the ones behind them were a light golden colour, in contrast to the rose-red rocks we were standing on. It was incredible to see so many different coloured rocks and mountains next to each other, and it was like nothing I’d ever seen.

We were invited to join the Bedouin for tea, which we gratefully did, and made ourselves comfortable on the low sofas and stools in the seating area. It was a precarious place to set up a makeshift café as it’s perched right on the edge of the mountain and there was a sheer drop all around us. But the spectacular views were well worth any health and safety quibbles.

Sitting on top of the mountain, sipping tea and chatting to the Bedouin, while gazing in awe at the jaw-dropping views all around us, was the perfect end to our morning adventure. It was a fantastic once-in-a-lifetime moment and I didn’t want to leave, it was so peaceful and relaxing.

Eventually, we rallied and managed to drag ourselves away, aware we needed to make our way back down the mountain before it got too hot. It was much faster going down the mountain than it was going up, but the sun was blazing and it was hard work as there were few places to seek shade.

By the time we reached the bottom, we were hot and uncomfortable, so we stopped off in the Tents restaurant for a drink, deciding to stay for an hour to rest and recuperate.

Two camels rest outside the Treasury in Petra

From the restaurant, we slowly made our way back out of Petra, constantly looking around us at the amazing sights and taking in every last drop of the ancient capital. At the Treasury, I took one last photo (above), and as we walked up the Siq, I turned around for my final glimpse of that magnificent monument. Once again, the Treasury looked a little different in the mid-afternoon sun.

I enjoyed my final walk through the Siq, but the last stretch between the Siq and the visitor centre was a long, slow, painful, uphill walk. The last stretch felt as though it took forever to complete, but we eventually made it to the visitor centre and from there to our hotel.

It’s hard to do justice to what an incredibly special and magical place Petra is. Petra is the reason I decided to spend a week in Jordan as I’d long wanted to see its famous tombs and the Treasury up close. I’ve sometimes found that world-renowned, iconic places don’t always live up to the hype when you see them in person (cough, Sydney Opera House), but Petra didn’t disappoint, and in fact was far more impressive than I’d imgained.

There’s so much more to Petra than the oft-photographed Treasury and Siq. The scenery is awe-inspiring, the hiking trails superb, and the Monastery and viewing points magnificent. It’s the one place I’d encourage everyone to put on their “bucket list” (for want of a better, less clichéd phrase) – it’s truly memorable and one of my top travel highlights.

Petra – the High Place of Sacrifice and the Royal Tombs

Looking down on the outer Siq in Petra

After our wonderful introduction to Petra via the Siq and the Treasury, we continued exploring the ancient Nabatean capital via the Outer Siq.

The Outer Siq is a large path that leads to the heart of the City of Petra, and the rocks surrounding it are home to countless tombs and dwellings. As we walked along the Outer Siq, we passed a number of Bedouin stalls lining the route, as well as a few Bedouin offering camel, horse and donkey rides.

Just beyond the tombs, we reached a staircase carved into the rock, which led to the High Place of Sacrifice on top of the Jebel Attuf mountain, and decided to follow it.

Looking down on the staircases and paths that lead to the High Place of Sacrifice in Petra

The trail wound round the mountain, following the natural path of the rock, and it was a long, but comfortable climb to the High Place of Sacrifice. Near the top, the path all but disappeared and we found ourselves walking over the bare rock face. The higher we got, the windier it became, and I didn’t feel particularly safe as we neared the summit, as there was nothing to stop us hurtling off the mountain if we were blown off our feet.

The High Place of Sacrifice in Petra

Luckily, as I approached the summit, an elderly Bedouin woman grabbed me by the hand and pulled me up. The High Place of Sacrifice (above), is large rectangular space cut into the top of the mountain, with an altar to the side, and it is thought to have been used by the Nabatean people for animal and human sacrifices.

Despite the slightly hairy end to the climb, it was well worth it as the views from the top, looking out over the main thoroughfare in Petra (below), were phenomenal.

The spectacular view from the High Place of Sacrifice in Petra

The elderly woman stayed with us as we looked around the High Place of Sacrifice and climbed down a series of steps on the other side of the altar to a viewing platform, where we sat on the edge of the mountain, enthralled by the view in front of us.

The views on the hike where we descended the High Place of Sacrifice in Petra

After a short rest, we said goodbye to the woman and decided to take a different path down the mountain, following a long, winding trail through the rocks. Thankfully, there was a light breeze, which helped reduce the effects of the strong sun that was now blazing down upon us.

As we walked, I was captivated by the incredible shapes in the rocks, caused by millennia of water erosion, and the vast array of colours – an intoxicating mix of reds, purples, yellows, blacks, greens, whites and even light blues.

I’d never seen anything like it, and try as I might, it was impossible to capture the full array of colours in a photo. The rock formations were spectacular and I kept finding myself tripping over the rocks on the ground because I was so busy looking around in awe at the astonishing geology.

Halfway down the mountain, we stopped at a shack belonging to a Bedouin woman for a welcome drink, before continuing along the trail.

The Tomb of the Roman Soldier in Petra

We soon reached a large plateau, home to a number of tombs, including that of the Roman Soldier (above). We ventured inside the tomb and found a large, square room with black walls and a black ceiling. I was a little taken aback by how dark it was inside because for some reason, I’d assumed it would be the same rose-red hue as outside.

The Garden Triclinium tomb in Petra

There were a series of other tombs in the near vicinity, too, including the Garden Triclinium (above), the Broken Pediment Tomb and the Renaissance Tomb. But we decided against going inside them all, as they didn’t seem to be particularly exciting, and instead continued to follow the long, winding trail down the mountain. As we carried on along this final stretch, we were in the full glare of the searingly hot sun, and by the time we reached the City of Petra, I was feeling quite ill.

The hike from the Tomb of the Roman Soldier to the City of Petra

Once in the city, we headed to a large tented restaurant for lunch, where I felt too sick to eat. But after taking paracetamol and drinking plenty of water, I made myself eat – some salad, hummus and flatbread. I was still overheating, though, so I went to the bathroom and bathed my feet and face in ice-cold water in a desperate bid to cool down.

After an hour or so’s respite and feeling a little better, we set off along a trail towards the Ridge Church. Along the way, we enjoyed great views over the buildings opposite, including the altar, the royal palace and the market place. When we reached the church, we stepped inside to take a look at a series of fascinating mosaics that dated back to the 6th century AD.

The Royal Tombs carved into the mountain in Petra

From the church, we carried on along the path towards the Royal Tombs (above), stopping en route at a small shack for a quick respite, as by now, I wasn’t the only one feeling the effects of the sun. I poured water all over my face to try to cool down, and once we felt better, we set off again and soon arrived at the Royal Tombs.

The Royal Tombs are a series of enormous temples carved next to each other in the El-Khubtha mountain. The remarkable temples are thought to have housed the tombs of the kings and queens of Petra. We made our way inside the largest tomb, the Palace Tomb, and then ventured inside the Urn Tomb.

The rectangular chamber inside the Urn Tomb was massive, with an exceptionally high ceiling and recesses cut into the back wall and along the sides. The tomb was lovely and cool, and we sat down for a respite to admire the red, purple and white marbling effect in the rock. Despite there being no intricate carvings or decoration inside the tomb, it was a stunning sight thanks to the natural beauty of the rock.

A series of tombs cut into the rock in the Outer Siq at Petra

After a good look around the Royal Tombs, we rejoined the main thoroughfare in the City of Petra, stopping off along the way to look at the Bedouin stalls that lined the street.

We slowly made our way back through the Outer Siq (above) to the Treasury (below), where I was amazed by how different it looked in the late afternoon sunshine compared to the early morning. The ornate temple was now a rich, reddy-pink colour instead of the golden hue of the morning.

The Treasury bathed in the late afternoon light in Petra

It was a long, arduous walk back through the Siq and to the visitor centre – I’d forgotten quite how long it took to get into the city. But despite feeling hot, bothered, tired and a little woozy, it was well worth it because I’d had a marvellous day.

Petra is a remarkable place, quite unlike anywhere else on Earth. A natural geological stunner, it’s home to some of the most incredible archaeology on the planet and I couldn’t wait to get back to explore some more.

Stay tuned for the final part of my adventures in Petra, where I hiked to the Monastery and had one of my all time favourite travel experiences…

Petra – the Treasury and the Siq

The Treasury at Petra

I don’t mind admitting I’ve been dreading writing this post, not because I didn’t enjoy Petra or because I had nothing to write about, but because it’s such an extraordinary, unique place, it’s almost impossible to do it justice in a blog post.

How do you succinctly sum up one of the great wonders of the world in less than a thousand words? There are so many captivating parts to the ancient city, it’s hard to know where to begin, what to include and what to leave out. But here goes…

The Garden Triclinium tomb in Petra

The ancient Nabatean capital of Petra lay undiscovered for centuries, unknown to all bar a few local Arabs, until the Swiss explorer, Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, uncovered its secrets in 1812. Since then, the mesmerising site has been celebrated as one of the great archaeological wonders of the world.

Looking down on the outer Siq in Petra

The vast city, nestled among the mountains and valleys of what is today south-west Jordan, was carved out of the rose-red rocks by the Nabatean people more than 2,000 years ago. Home to countless temples and tombs, an amphitheatre and breathtaking scenery, this magical, atmospheric site still casts a spell to this day.

A series of tombs cut into the rock in the Outer Siq at Petra

On our first day in Petra, we were up bright and early, and at the visitor centre (a modern complex filled with shops) by 8am so we could reach its most famous temple, The Treasury, by 9.15am to see it bathed in the morning light. From the ticket office, we walked down the long, winding road to the start of the Siq, the narrow canyon in the Wadi Musa that leads to the ancient city.

Along the way, we passed a couple of Nabatean monuments, the Obelisk Tomb and the Bab el-Siq Triclinium. The impressive tombs cut into the golden-red rock were merely a taste of the spectacular sights that awaited us further on.

We soon reached the Siq, and as we began making our way through the 900m-long golden-red ravine, I was blown away by the natural beauty around us. I couldn’t help but think of the photos I’d seen of the Grand Canyon or the iconic rock formations in Arizona and Utah.

The elephant-shaped rock formation in the Siq in Petra

The geology was simply extraordinary and one of my favourite sights was the rock formation in the shape of an elephant (above). I was also awe-struck by the faint outline of a man and his camels carved into the rock (below), which had sadly eroded over time. We passed some of the original Nabatean paving, too, as well as a series of water channels cleverly cut into the rocks.

The remains of the carving of a man and his camels in the Siq in Petra

As we ventured deeper into the Siq, it became narrower and narrower, then as we neared the end, a shard of light appeared between the rocks and the magnificent form of the Treasury came into view. The world-famous temple, which dates back to the 1st century BC, is a magnificent spectacle.

Its enormous ornamental facade, expertly carved into the rock, features many decorative symbols and touches, such as vines, eagles, gods and goddesses.

The Treasury in Petra

Around the sides of the Treasury, I noticed lots of small holes in the rock. The Nabateans drilled these holes into the rock and filled them with wood, which they then wet and left, so they expanded, causing the rock face to collapse and leaving them with a flat, sheer piece of rock for carving.

You can’t go inside the Treasury, but if you stand beside it and look down, you can see the entrance to the ancient tombs below. It’s a breathtaking sight and we spent a good 20 minutes admiring the golden-red carving and taking lots of photos.

The Treasury in Petra in the early morning sunshine

The Treasury is an extraordinary sight and quite unlike anything I’ve ever seen. Bathed in the golden hue of the early morning light, the temple almost glowed and it was easy to see why it’s one of the most iconic, most photographed places on earth. It’s spectacular and the perfect introduction to the many wonders of Petra…

Stay tuned for part two of my adventures in Petra as I visit even more temples, including the Royal Tombs, and hike to the High Place of Sacrifice.

Kerak Castle

Inside the remains of Kerak Castle

Regular readers of my blog may have noticed that I really, really love a castle and so it goes without saying I was very excited at the prospect of visiting Kerak Castle during my week in Jordan.

Walls and passageways at Kerak Castle

The Crusader castle at Kerak is an enormous white limestone fortress, perched high on a hill overlooking its modern-day namesake town. It was built during the Crusades, in 1142, by Pagan the Butler, lord of Outrejourdain – one of a number of castles built by the Crusaders across the Levant.

Some of the ruined walls at Kerak Castle

The castle’s extensive walls extend across the hill top, dominating the town, and I couldn’t help but be impressed as we approached it.

Dusty white limestone passageway inside Kerak Castle

The enormous castle’s in a ruined state, so you have to use your imagination to picture what it must have looked like during the 12th century. The ground underfoot is rocky and dusty, too, so I was glad I’d worn sensible, sturdy shoes for my visit. Being a clumsy so-and-so, I had to make sure I looked where I was going as I wandered around.

Looking up at the white limestone ruins of Kerak Castle

The sprawling fortress is home to lots of rooms, tunnels and passages, and with multiple floors to explore, uneven staircases, dark, unlit rooms and only a handful of safety barriers, there’s no way it would pass a health and safety inspection in the UK, but I had great fun clambering over the rocks, going up and down the staircases, and exploring the castle’s many, many nooks and crannies.

Walking around the castle, I couldn’t help but admire its grand majesty. The Crusaders built it in an excellent strategic location, with incredible views over the vast valley below – Jerusalem is visible in the distance on a clear day – and it must have been a formidable and imposing sight during its Crusader heyday.

Views over the valley below from Kerak Castle

It’s a superb fortress and a fabulous place to spend a fun-filled hour or so. While it’s in a bit of a dilapidated state, it’s nevertheless an incredible building and I had a fantastic time exploring all there was to see. With so much to seek out, Kerak Castle more than lived up to my (admittedly rather high) expectations.

Madaba

A sign at the Greek Orthodox Church of St George's in Madaba, Jordan

Tucked away among the narrow streets of Madaba is St George’s Church. And while from the outside, it may look like any other church, inside it’s home to one of Jordan’s greatest treasures – the sixth century map of Madaba.

The Madaba Mosaic Map is a mosaic map of the Holy Land that’s thought to date back to the time of the Emperor Justinian. The mosaic is incomplete with only fragments surviving, but what remains is a detailed and fairly accurate map of the region.

An illustrated diagram of the Mosaic Map of Madaba at St George's Church

Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Jericho, the Dead Sea, Mount Sinai, the Jordan River and the Nile Delta are just a few of the famous places featured in the map. The place names are marked using Greek capital letters, and with more than 2,000 characters, it’s one of the largest surviving pieces of Byzantine writing.

The map lay undiscovered until 1884, and once people realised how important it was, St George’s Church was built around it in 1902 to protect it.

When we arrived at the site, we made our way to the visitor centre next door to the church where we were given a brief introduction to the map, before heading inside the church. St George’s Church is a small, ornately decorated Greek Orthodox church and its star attraction, the mosaic map, is in the centre, surrounded by protective ropes.

Part of the Mosaic Map of Madaba in St George's Church

The ancient map was much bigger than I’d anticipated. And while much of it has been lost, the fragments that remain are fascinating and in fairly good condition. I spent quite a bit of time looking at the different parts of the map, trying to work out where the many places depicted were.

Part of the Mosaic Map of Madaba on the floor of St George's Church

The Mosaic Map of Madaba is an extraordinary piece of Byzantine cartography and craftsmanship, offering an intriguing glimpse into the region’s past. It’s amazing to think that such a remarkable piece of history has survived for so long and is now taking pride of place in an unassuming church in the middle of Jordan.

Mount Nebo

Memorial of Moses on top of Mount Nebo in Jordan

According to the Bible, Jordan’s Mount Nebo is the place from which Moses saw the Promised Land right before he died. The mountain, which overlooks the Dead Sea, is today home to the prophet’s purported grave, as well as a church and a small museum.

View towards Amman from the top of Mount Nebo

It was bright and early when we arrived atop Mount Nebo, some 800m above sea level, and thanks to the cloudless, clear skies, we were greeted by fantastic views – to the north, we could just make out the two towers in far away Amman beyond the Wadi ‘Uyun Musa (above); to the south was the Wadi al Judaydah; to the east, the Wadi ‘Afrit; and to the south-west, the Dead Sea, beyond which we could just about see Israel and some of the buildings in Jerusalem (below).

View from the top of Mount Nebo with the Dead Sea to the south-west and Israel in the far distance

Unsurprisingly, given its religious significance, there’s been some form of sanctuary or church on top of Mount Nebo since at least the fourth century, and today, the site is home to the Memorial Church of Moses, which is thought to have been built in the sixth century.

Mix of old and new inside the Memorial Church of Moses on top of Mount Nebo

After spending some time admiring the views from the top of the mountain, we made our way inside the church. The small, simple basilica is a curious mix of church and archaeology museum. The interior is dominated by a series of ancient mosaics, some of which date back as far as 531AD. There’s also a coffin-sized hole in the ground, which is said to be Moses’s grave (below).

A glass top protects Moses's purported grave inside the Memorial Church of Moses

The mosaics cover large parts of the floor and walls, and according to our guide, the mosaics on the floor (below) were only discovered during an earthquake, as they were originally overlaid by those now hanging on the walls. The mosaics are in excellent condition, and it’s clear they’ve been expertly restored and cared for – they look so clean and modern, it’s hard to believe they’re 1,500 years old.

After a good look around the church, we paid a quick visit to the site’s small museum to find out more about its history. Mount Nebo is a curious and unusual place – its undeniable highlight being the breathtaking mosaic floors.